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母猪便秘,是一种现象而并非是一种疾病

来源: 赤峰和美嘉科技有限公司  点击:30 发布时间:2017-2-9

  母猪便秘(干结)被认为是无关痛痒的小问题,没有引起足够的重视,报刊杂志也很少有这一类的研究和推广性文章,显得母猪便秘(干结)问题已得到解决或危害不大,然而,经过走访河南、湖北、湖南、广东、山东等养猪大省的不同养殖规模的养猪场,看到的实际情况令人不安——母猪便秘(干结)问题依旧比较严重,是导致当前疾病的罪魁祸首。


       母猪便秘是一种现象而并非是一种疾病,其实母猪已经进入病理状态,如果不及时处理,进入病理状态就会引起母猪的一系列疾病。如在便秘时,由于粪团在大肠内移动缓慢,水份过度被吸收,造成严重的排粪困难甚至不能排粪,引起母猪的一系列疾病。


1、粪便发酵产生热量会使直肠温度升高,进而造成母猪体温升高,不食或厌食。


2、粪便发酵产生的毒素会损害机体的器官,引起各种炎症,如子宫炎等,也会加剧母猪的乳房水肿现象,严重的会引起乳房炎。乳房炎及产生的毒素都会引起仔猪下痢。


3、便秘会造成母猪厌食,进而引起母猪分娩无力,充满粪便的直肠压迫产道,两者都会引起母猪难产,产死胎或流产。


4、便秘会引起母猪精神沉郁或暴躁,母猪坐立不安,容易压死、咬死、夹死仔猪。


5、便秘会引起母猪营养不良,进而影响仔猪生长发育。


6、母猪排便不畅,肠内残留时间长导致有害细菌在粪便中大量繁殖,增加了母猪被感染的可能性,出现产后热。产生蓄积酸中毒从而使母猪的利用年限缩短。


一、母猪便秘的原因


1、生理因素:


母猪妊娠期相关的各种生理因素也会引起分娩前后母猪的便秘,如母猪的乳房水肿,妊娠母猪的内分泌状态变化、母猪年龄、饲养管理因素特别是应激因素等都有可能引起母猪的便秘。


2、母猪缺乏运动:


特别是定位饲养造成母猪缺乏运动,加上环境突然变化所致的应激,使采食量和饮水减少,进而造成肠道运动紊乱而便秘。


3、膳食纤维不足:


颗粒过细、粗纤维含量不足、不喂青绿饲料,造成直肠蠕动减少,直肠中没有足够的水份而便秘。


4、蛋白质过高:


美国明尼苏达大学畜牧学教授JerryShurson认为母猪由分娩前的低蛋白质日粮转喂泌乳期高蛋白质日粮时,改变了大肠吸收和分泌液体的能力,使大肠变得满实而便秘。


5、微生态区系的不平衡:


猪的肠道是一个复杂的内环境,包括食物的残渣、分解产物、蛋白酶、免疫球蛋白、病毒、益生菌、致病菌及其代谢产物外毒素、内毒素等致病因子。在肠道内各成分处于一个平衡的状态时,机体表现出健康状态,当这种平衡受到冲击而导致失衡时,机体则呈现不健康状态。猪的肠道内有30多个属,500多种微生物,主要包括需氧菌、兼性厌氧菌、厌氧菌3个部分。肠道中益生菌大部分以厌氧菌为主,主要有专性厌氧的双歧杆菌属、厌氧的乳酸杆菌属、兼性厌氧的乳球菌属、链球菌属和肠球菌属。厌氧菌在数量上占据很大的优势,约为99%,兼性厌氧菌和需氧菌约为1%。


抗生素的长期不正确的使用,在杀灭致病菌的同时,也杀死了益生菌,破坏了肠道微生态平衡,导致菌群生长失调。如肠道中有一种能将硫酸盐还原为硫化氢的有害菌,使得硫化氢造成肠壁腐蚀,引发肠道慢性炎症,胃肠蠕动减缓,饲料和营养的消化吸收率低,长期慢性肠炎会导致消化吸收不良,饲料报酬严重下降。


便秘对肠道黏膜造成机械性损伤后,黏膜出血。大肠内大量细菌产生的外毒素和内毒素侵入血液后,容易引起细菌和病毒的外源性感染,导致母猪炎症和抵抗力下降,所以当前母猪的便秘多是肠道益生菌过少、有害菌过多,肠道菌群失衡引起的,便秘会造成大量的细菌积存在肠道内,使肠道内的有害菌繁殖,形成有毒物质(内毒素Toxin) ,并随血液一起循环流遍全身----引起毒血症(Virus Diseases)。如,便秘后肠道内停留着大量的有害微生物(微生物制造毒素),在非便秘情况下,毒素可以随粪便排出母猪体外。但是便秘后,体内过多毒素侵入猪的神经系统、皮肤黏膜……如:过量麦角毒素被吸收,使乳腺细胞分泌减少,功能丧失。T2进入乳腺组后,导致乳腺组织皮肤病变,诱发乳房炎,乳房炎及产生的毒素均会引起仔猪下痢。


二、预防和治疗措施


考虑原因是各种因素的综合作用,所以在防治上首先应采取如下措施:


1、饲养母猪应做到细心管理,特别在夏季应给母猪供应丰富而充足的饮水。


2、饲料应搭配均匀,很多猪场为了防止母猪便秘而增大了饲料中麸皮的比例,有个别品种猪场甚至达到30-40%的比例,其实,在实际中母猪发生便秘并非由麸皮不够引起的,相反盲目增加麸皮用量反而会降低母猪的能量摄取,这对于夏天反而会加大母猪的热应激,严重者还会发生产后不发情的现象。


3、采用一些矿物盐类缓泻产品,如硫酸镁、硫酸钠及人工盐等。缺点:副作用严重,通过肠道周围组织内水分向肠道内的转移,会引起其他相关组织的缺水,引起其它组织功能的非正常化,如母猪产后无乳等症状。严重者造成母猪拉稀等情况。


4.活性乳酸菌具有抑制病原菌、调节免疫、促进消化和吸收、改善饲料转化率、降低舍内臭味等多项作用,通过微生物干预从生理上彻底解决母猪便秘问题。使乳猪初生重平均达1.5公斤以上,白痢减少75%,28天断奶体重达10公斤以上(比正常增加2.5公斤);母猪断奶后乏情或不发情现象减少90%,可提高经产母猪的胎次(由每年2.2胎提高到2.5胎)。



The English version

Sow constipation (hard) is considered to be innocuous small problems, no cause enough attention, newspapers and magazines are rarely has the research and popularization of this kind of articles, appear the sow constipation (hard) problem has been solved or harmless, however, after a visit to henan, hubei, hunan, guangdong, shandong and other different breeding pig big province scale pig farms, to see the actual situation of disturbing -- sow constipation (hard) problem is still serious, is the main culprit of the current disease.


The sow constipation is a phenomenon which is not a disease, in fact, the sow has entered the pathological state, if not handled in time, into a series of disease pathology will cause the sow. When such as constipation, due to the manure in e. slow-moving, moisture is absorbed excessive, causing severe defecation difficult or even not defecation, a series of disease cause the sow.


1, manure fermentation generate heat can make the rectal temperature, causing the sow body temperature, no food or anorexia.


2, waste fermentation to produce toxins can damage the body organs, causing all sorts of inflammation, such as uterine inflammation, also exacerbate the sow breast swelling phenomenon, serious can cause mastitis. Mastitis and produce toxins can cause diarrhea piglets.


3 can cause the sow anorexia, constipation, resulting in the sow childbirth is weak, and full of feces oppression rectum the birth canal, both can cause sows during childbirth, stillbirth or abortion.


4, constipation causes sows spirit is depressed, or irritable, sow fidgeting, easy to kill, bite dead, dead piglets.


5, constipation can cause malnutrition in sows, which affect the growth of piglets.


6, the sow, defecate intestinal residue time lead to harmful bacteria multiply in the feces, increased the possibility of sows infected, puerperal fever. Produces acidosis which sows use fixed number of year of shortening.


The reason why the, sow constipation


1, physiological factors:


Sows during pregnancy can also cause a variety of physiological factors associated sows before and after the birth of constipation, such as the sow breast swelling, the pregnancy sow state of endocrine factors, sow age, breeding management, especially stress factors are likely to cause the sow constipation.


2, sow the lack of movement:


Especially to locate breeding sows, lack of exercise, coupled with environmental stress caused by a sudden change, reduce feed intake and water, causing the bowel movement disorder and constipation.


3, lack of dietary fiber:


Particles interloper, crude fiber content is insufficient, don't feed the green feed, resulting in a decrease of the rectum peristalsis, there is not enough water in the rectum and constipation.


4, high protein:


Professor of animal science at the university of Minnesota JerryShurson think pigs from the low protein diet before delivery to feed lactation high protein diet, changed the large intestine fluid absorption and secretion capacity, make e. full solid and constipation.


5, micro biota is imbalance:


Pig intestines are within a complex environment, including food scraps, breakdown products, protease, immunoglobulin, viruses, probiotics, pathogenic bacteria and their metabolites toxins, endotoxin and other pathogenic factors. In intestinal all ingredients in a state of balance, the body health status, when the balance impact and cause imbalances, the body is not healthy. Pig intestines with more than 30 genera, 500 kinds of microorganisms, including aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria, anaerobic bacteria three parts. Most mainly anaerobic bacteria in the intestinal probiotics, mainly include: bifidobacterium obligate anaerobic, anaerobic lactic acid bacteria genera, facultative anaerobic milk coccus, streptococcus and enterococcus. Occupy a lot of advantages in terms of the anaerobic bacteria, about 99%, facultative anaerobe and aerobe is about 1%.


Long-term incorrect use of antibiotics, while kill bacteria, also killed the probiotics, destroyed the intestinal microecological balance, causing bacteria growth disorders. If there is a will in the intestinal sulfate reducing harmful bacteria for hydrogen sulfide, the hydrogen sulfide to cause intestinal wall corrosion, cause chronic inflammation of the intestinal, gastric bowel peristalsis slow, feed and nutrition digestion absorption rate is low, a chronic, inflammatory bowel disease can lead to poor digestion, absorption, feed remuneration serious decline.


Constipation of intestinal mucosa after mechanical damage, mucosal bleeding. A lot of time inside large intestine bacteria produce toxins and outside after blood endotoxin intrusion, and easy to cause exogenous bacteria and Virus infections, resulting in a decline in sow inflammation and immunity and so is more than the current sow constipation intestinal probiotics too little and too much harmful bacteria, intestinal flora imbalance caused by constipation can lead to accumulate a large number of bacteria in the intestines, make intestines of harmful bacteria breeding, formation of toxic substances (endotoxin Toxin), and with the blood circulation flow to all parts of your body - cause blood poisoning (Virus get Diseases). Such as constipation after stay with a lot of harmful microbes in the gut (microbial manufacturing toxins), in case of constipation, toxins can with droppings sows in vitro. But after constipation, the body of toxins into pigs too much nervous system, skin and mucous membrane... Such as: excessive ergot toxin is absorbed, make mammary gland cell secretion decline, loss of function. T2 after entering breast group, cause skin lesions, breast tissue to induce mastitis, mastitis and produce toxins can cause diarrhea piglets.


Second, the prevention and treatment measures


Considering the reason is that a combination of various factors, so on the prevention and control of first of all should take the following measures:


1, breeding sows should do careful management, especially in the summer should supply the sow rich and plentiful water.


2, feed should be uniform collocation, many pig farms in order to prevent the sow constipation and increased the proportion of feed bran, have particular breed farm and even up to 30-40% of the proportion, in fact, in practice, sow constipation occurred is not caused by not enough bran, instead blind increase bran dosage can reduce the energy consume of sows, instead it will increase the sow for the summer heat stress, serious postpartum not rutting phenomenon will occur.


3, using some mineral salts HuanXie products, such as magnesium sulfate, sodium sulfate and artificial salt, etc. Weakness: the side effects, through the intestinal tissues around water off to gut, can lead to other related organizations lack water, cause other organization function of normalization, symptoms such as sow postpartum without milk. Serious cause sows, diarrhea, and so on and so forth.


4. The activity of lactic acid bacteria can inhibit pathogens, regulating immunity, promote digestion and absorption, improve feed conversion rate, reduce smell in the house, through microbial intervention from physical thoroughly solve the problem of the sow constipation. Make the Suckling pig average birth weight of 1.5 kg, could reduce 75%, 28 days weaning weight 10 kg (2.5 kg) more than the normal; Sow after weaning spent or rutting phenomenon reduced by 90%, improves the tire of multiparity sows time (from 2.2 to 2.5 births per year).

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