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饲料霉菌毒素对家禽的危害,不容小觑

来源: 赤峰和美嘉科技有限公司  点击:23 发布时间:2017-2-14


  霉菌毒素是霉菌在生长过程中产生的有毒化学物质,在畜禽体内可产生多种毒副作用—肝毒、肾毒、对中枢神经系统的作用以及类似雌激素效应等。当霉菌毒素在饲料中达到一定浓度即会危害畜禽的身体健康和生产性能,即使浓度较低情况下,其与各种应激因子相互作用也可使动物出现各种亚临床发病症状,此种情况甚至比直接表现出来的急性作用带来的损害更为严重。

      常见的霉菌毒素有:黄曲霉毒素,玉米赤霉烯酮,赭曲霉毒素,T-2毒素,呕吐毒素,烟曲霉毒素等。

      <1>霉菌毒素能引起法氏囊、胸腺和脾脏等免疫器官萎缩,诱发免疫抑制。引起新城疫、流感等免疫失败。 

       <2>霉菌毒素会造成经常性的拉稀,肠道病久治不愈,饲料便频繁发生,采食量大大减少,体重大大下降。 

       <3>霉菌毒素具有极强的腐蚀性,对消化道的破坏相当严重。能引起口腔溃疡,嗉囊的炎症以及病情后期的假膜,溃疡性以及增生性腺炎,腺胃与肌胃交界处形成溃疡,肌胃角质膜易剥离。角质膜增厚以及角质膜下形成出血溃疡,肠道脆性增大,肠粘膜脱落、坏死。影响机体对营养物质的消化和吸收,饲料利用率和转化率降低。 

       <4>霉菌毒素中毒可导致肝脏多灶性肝细胞坏死,肝细胞增生以及发病前期由于充血而呈暗红色,后期由于脂肪聚集呈黄色,但不管发病前期与后期都为橡皮肝的感觉。胆囊黏膜由于胆小管的增生和坏死而发炎,出现胆囊脆性增大的现象 

       <5>霉菌毒素会造成种鸡产蛋下降、蛋壳质量下降、受精率和孵化率下降,孵化中胚胎死亡多见;霉菌毒素通过减少肝脏卵黄前体的合成和转运而对蛋鸡产蛋造成影响,采食量的下降以及料价比的不合理是母鸡性成熟延迟。 

      <6>霉菌毒素对肾脏的损害表现为肾小管发生变性而阻塞,产生尿酸盐沉积,从而导致痛风症的发生,不明病因腿病增多。 

      <7>霉菌毒素对血管壁的损伤使血压上升,增加了心脏的负担,使腹水症多发。

      肝脏是机体主要的免疫器官、解毒器官、代谢器官和消化器官,一旦遭到损害,随之引发一系列的病变,禽上表现为脂肪肝,也会引发畜禽的营养性腹泻和过料等。

     所以,在目前养殖环境下,保护家禽的肝胆健康显得尤为重要。饲料中添加胆汁酸一方面可以缓解肝脏的压力,保证肝脏正常功能的发挥;另一方面,作为一种有效的杀菌剂,胆汁酸能够抑制大肠杆菌、链球菌及其它有害细菌的繁殖。此外,某些种类的胆汁酸如脱氧胆酸可以促进肝细胞分泌大量稀薄的胆汁,使胆道畅通,消除胆汁淤滞,起到利胆作用。



The English version

Mycotoxins are the mold in the process of growth of toxic chemicals, in animal body can produce a variety of side effects - poison toxic liver, kidney, and the function of the central nervous system similar to estrogen effect, etc. When reaches a certain concentration of mycotoxins in feed, which can endanger the health of livestock and poultry and production performance, even if the concentration is low, its interaction with various stress factor also can make the animal appear all kinds of clinical symptoms, the situation is even better than directly show the acute effects of the damage is more serious.

Common mycotoxins are: yellow aspergillus toxin, corn gibberellic ketene, ochre and aspergillus toxin, T 2 toxin, vomiting toxins, smoke aspergillus toxin, etc.

< 1 > mycotoxin can cause immune organs such as the bursa of fabricius, thymus and spleen atrophy, induce immunosuppression. Caused by Newcastle disease, such as influenza immune failure.  

< 2 > mycotoxin causes frequent diarrhea, intestinal disease cured, feed frequently occur, greatly reduce feed intake, weight drops greatly.  

< 3 > mycotoxins has strong corrosive, serious damage to the digestive tract. Can cause oral cavity ulcer, craw membrane in the late of inflammation and the disease sex gland inflammation, ulcer and hyperplasia gland stomach meets muscular stomach ulcer formation, muscular stomach cutin membrane easy tear. Cutin membrane thickening and cutin membrane formed under bleeding ulcer, intestinal brittleness increases, intestinal mucous membrane shedding, necrosis. Affect the body's digestion and absorption of nutrients, feed utilization rate and conversion rate reduced.  

< 4 > mycotoxin poisoning can lead to liver multifocal liver cell necrosis, hyperplasia of liver cells and early disease due to congestion and dark yellow, late due to fat accumulation yellow, but regardless of the onset of early and late for rubber liver. The gallbladder mucosa due to bile duct hyperplasia and necrosis and inflammation, gallbladder brittleness increased

< 5 > mycotoxin will cause the loss of chicken eggs, eggshell quality, fertilization rate and hatching rate decreased, incubation of embryonic death see more; Mycotoxin by reducing liver synthesis and transport of yolk precursor for laying hens lay eggs, feed intake declines and unreasonable material price ratio is the hen maturation delays.  

< 6 > the damage to the kidney mycotoxins of renal tubule degeneration and block, produce uric acid salt deposition, leading to the onset of gout, unknown etiology leg disease increased.  

< 7 > mycotoxin damage in blood vessel walls rise in blood pressure, increased the burden of heart, make the ascites syndrome happens.

The liver is the body's immune organs, the main detoxifying organs, metabolic organs and digestive organ, once the damage, a series of pathological changes, may be associated with poultry performance for fatty liver, also cause livestock nutritional diarrhea and material, etc.

So, in the current breeding environment, it is particularly important to protect poultry liver health. Bile acid is added to the feed, on the one hand, can alleviate the pressure of the liver, to give full play to normal liver function; On the other hand, as a kind of effective fungicide, bile acid can inhibit escherichia coli, streptococcus and other harmful bacteria breeding. In addition, some types of bile acid such as deoxycholic acid can promote liver cells secrete a large number of thin bile, the bile duct, eliminate bile clogged, cholagogic effect.


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